Hillman Hunter : The Swallow project
Conceived as an advanced replacement for the Audax range and created with the same set of goals as the Imp, the Swallow could have been the Rootes Group’s swansong…
Sadly, it did not progress very far. Hindsight suggests that this might be no bad thing, as rear engined family cars were rapidly becoming a thing of the past, thanks to BMC’s advanced front wheel drive range, and Ford’s well-engineered rear wheel drive opponents. Rootes would follow Ford’s rather than BMC’s lead.
The story of Rootes’ Swallow actually dates back to the 1950s, and shows, yet again, how the British motor industry enjoyed a good deal of cross fertilization between the companies. The automotive consultancy company ERA, based in Dunstable, were commissioned by BMC to produce an advanced saloon car – with a view to challenging BMC’s own designers (led by Sir Alec Issigonis) – which would have been intended to fit in the range above the Mini. The resulting rear-engined car was then sold to back BMC, who quickly dropped the idea, figuring that the Mini concept was just fine when scaled up. The rest, they say, is history…
So what is the link between this amusing concept and the Rootes Swallow? In 1959, ERA was sold to the Zenith/Solex concern, who had little interest in producing cars, preferring to concentrate on research into carburettors and fuel injection systems. The design team responsible for ERA’s BMC proposal, therefore, concluded that it was time to jump ship, preferring to remain in the car business. David Hodkin headed that team, and they found a berth at Rootes, which at the time, was also attempting to re-invent itself.
The ex-ERA engineers initially found themselves working on mainstream projects, but with the Imp nearing completion, the Rootes family looked towards the Audax range. They decided that these middle-of-the-road cars needed a replacement that was similarly advanced as the Imp. With that in mind, Hodkin was chosen to head a team to design a this new car, and was given carte blanche by the Rootes family.
Almost immediately, the designers set about producing concepts for the new car. These first cars (dubbed “Swift”), pretty much picked up where ERA had left off, and continued the slightly off-the-wall thinking that led to the original car. The Swift was conceived as a family of cars that could be powered by an in-line “four” or V8 engine, driving the front wheels (ahead of the axle-line, just like 1970s Audis), but it soon became clear that the car’s packaging would be a nightmare (excessive frontal overhang, for a start), and when management started making disparaging noises about the Swift, it soon became clear that an Imp-like rear-engine layout would be the preferable way to go.
The move to a rear engine came by way of a mid-engined layout, an outboard rear engine (as per the Porsche 911 and Imp). It was finally decided that the best place to mount the engine would be in the space aft of the rear seats, but ahead of the axle line; a mid-rear layout, in effect. This allowed for a boot to be retained at the rear, whilst ensuring that the style did not become too “tail heavy”.
However, in one of those unfortunate twists of fates, marketing requirements (of a 14-foot length) led to the team dropping the idea of producing a V8-engined car; which in turn, meant that the move to a rear engined layout would not have been neccessary, after all!
The engine was to be one of the most interesting aspects of the Swallow. As with the Imp, Rootes asked Coventry Climax to produce an engine for the Swallow, and also like the Imp, it was based on an existing unit, the 1220cc FWE. This engine had already found a home in the original Lotus Elite, and proved to be an excellent basis for a range of family car units. Swallow was designed to use 1250, 1500 and 1750cc versions.
By early 1963, the car had crystallised into the Swallow, but thanks to the announcement of the immaculately-costed Ford Cortina, it came under financial scrutiny from Rootes managament. After being instructed to limit the car’s length to 14-feet, the team were given permission to grow it slightly in the interests of passenger space, but because of the Cortina’s influence, the Swallow’s body engineering would need to be as light and efficient as possible. Pressed Steel produced a shell that met these demands (6,000 lb ft/degree compared with 4,650 of the later Arrow).
And that was in essence, what the Swallow was all about: a technically interesting car, which contained some advanced features, and was clothed in a light, but stiff body. The styling was overseen by Rex Fleming, and as can be seen by the accompanying photographs, it largely stood the test of time – a good job really, as Rootes planned for it to live a very long life.
So why did the Swallow not make it into production? Rootes had already felt the financial effects of the new Linwood factory, and the profit margins of the Imp were already looking slim. Management insecurity over this led to the Swallow project being re-appraised. After all, the smaller, cheaper Arrow project (which ran concurrently with the Swallow since late 1962) managed to look favourable, and had potential as a bigger car, as well. In November 1963, management bit the bullet and issued the edict that the Swallow was cancelled. Given that Pressed Steel had already built one prototype body, the car was completed anyway, and it was ran in 1964. It was academic by then, and soon after, the Swallow was mothballed. A sad end to an interesting idea.
Pictures courtesy of AUTOCAR, supplied by Jerry Ford.