Forty years ago, the world’s car markets looked a very different place – nowhere is this more the case than in South Africa, which managed to create some strange and interesting hybrids.
Keith Adams leads you through some of the more interesting ones.
In the mid-1970s, South Africa had a population of 25.5 million, and yet it managed to sustain a car market that was easily as active as that in the UK. New car sales 1976 in South Africa, for instance, only just surpassed last the August 1976’s monthly sales figure in the UK.
The country had 16 manufacturers with 12 major plants and about 55 component manufacturers, and they were engaged in cutthroat competition for a market which, in 1976, amounted to 185,132 new cars. That was the position in South Africa, the position Toni Schmucker, the then-Volkswagen supremo, described as the most fiercely-competitive market in the world.
The Government insisted on 66 per cent local content by weight for cars made in South Africa, so improvisation became a highly-developed art. Where else would you have found Hillman Hunters and Avengers with Peugeot engines, BMWs with semi-elliptic rear springs, Volvos made by Volkswagen, AMC Hornets with GM engines, or Leyland light commercials that originated in Japan?
In 1976, South Africa’s economy was finely balanced
A steep rise in oil prices and fall in gold values produced a serious balance of payments deficit and measures to correct it hit the motor industry hard. The import deposit scheme is said to have cost the industry millions and the universal 56mph limit enforced by fines which could run to £100 or even imprisonment, plus a ban on weekend sales of petrol, to all but tourists, drastically cut the use of cars.
In 1976, new car sales were 19.2 per cent below those of 1975. As in Europe, the Japanese mounted a strong sales drive and, for that year, Datsun came third with 24,187 sales against Ford’s 28,117 and top-seller VW with 28,912.
Illustrating the effect of 50mph speed limits and petrol at 85p a gallon, the Chevrolet 2500/4100 series (above) lost its place as top-selling car which it has held comfortably for many years. It dropped to third place behind Datsun’s much smaller 120/140Y and the Volkswagen Beetle.
How about British Leyland in South Africa?
When British Leyland gave up building cars in Australia in 1974, it shipped about 210 machine tools from there to South Africa, and set up an E-Series four- and six-cylinder overhead camshaft engine production line.
This enabled Leyland South Africa to launch South African Marinas with both four- and six-cylinder motors and, in 1975, it announced that it was able to produce 24,000 Marinas a year. Alas, total car sales in 1976 were 9846, spread over Mini, Apache the Marina, Triumph 2000, known locally as the Chicane, and the Jaguar 4.2.
It was losing millions and, when Jack Plane, who founded the South African operation, retired to Australia, it was suggested that the concern should be taken over by South African interests and freed from British control. It ended up not quite happening like that.
The Jaguar, assembled from CKD kits, was due to be phased out at the end of 1976 under the Government policy which reserved the market for locally-made cars. Leyland protested and had imports of Jaguar kits reinstated, at least until it could start local manufacture of the Rover SDX.
How GM dealt with the economic crisis
However, GM South Africa, which was dragged up from decay and decline to the number one spot in two years by Bob Price, head of Vauxhall from 1977-81, was not beaten. His game plan saw the Vauxhall Viva/Magnum bodyshell combined with Opel front and rear to form a very acceptable alternative to the international GM T-car (Chevette in Britain) without ruinous expenditure on new tooling. Power unit was a 1290cc four which has been built in South Africa for almost 10 years.
The Volkswagen Beetle was the first South African car whose output passed a quarter of a million, and it was kept amongst the market leaders by the introduction of clever variants. It was the first Beetle to have a 1600 engine. The SP model had a 58bhp twin-carburettor unit, and a front airdam that cut drag by 7 per cent.
Local content was calculated by weight, so most manufacturers setting up in business in South Africa concentrated on heavy items like engines and axles, but VW invested a large sum in one of the finest press shops in the country. This paid off, as a third of the work done there was for other manufacturers. Besides the bodies for VW and Audi models, it produced pressings for Citroën, Mercedes-Benz and Peugeot. Volvos were entirely built at the VW Uitenhage plant.
Mazda and Chrysler join forces
The most dramatic move towards rationalisation of the industry was the amalgamation of Illings, which built Mazdas, and Chrysler SA into the Sigma Motor Corporation. This brought together Mitsubishi Colts, Mazdas (some with Wankel engines), Dodge (Chrysler) Avengers, Australian (Chrysler) Valiants with their associated dealer networks, so there would have to be some extensive weeding out.
The Avenger was basically the same as the UK model, except that it began life with a 1618cc Peugeot engine, (later replaced by Chrysler units from Britain) and the Dodge version in 1974 already had the revised tail treatment with horizontal rear lights which only appeared on the 1977 models in the UK.
It incorporated components from the UK, Brazil, Argentina, Australia and France. The only manufacturer to achieve higher sales in 1976 than in 1975 was BMW. When BMW took over the Hans Glas concern, it found a new four-door saloon model ready for production, which would have competed directly with its own four-cylinder model, so it shipped all the tooling to South Africa.
With coil springs and wishbones up front and a live axle on semi-elliptic springs at the rear, they were rather far from the mainstream of BMW thought, but they got the business established. In 1973, when BMW had taken control of the operation, the body was cleverly restyled to look very like an authentic BMW by Frua.