The cars : Lotus Esprit development story

When the Lotus Esprit burst onto the scene in October 1975, it had a similar effect on fans of the marque as that fateful storm had on the gardens of countless homeowners in 1987.

Designed as the flagship of a triumvirate of cars, which also included the Elite and Éclat and was to shed Lotus of its long-held ‘kit car’ image, the Esprit became one of the most iconic British sports cars of the 1970s.

Lotus Esprit: a very British supercar

Based on a design penned by Giorgetto Giugiaro of Ital Design, which we’d seen three years before at the Geneva Motor Show, the mid-engined Esprit was a dramatic wedge-shaped masterpiece. Its styling was equally as controversial as anything produced by Lamborghini or Ferrari at the time, and the only thing the Esprit was missing to deny it true stardom was a V8 or V12 under its engine cover.

However, as we were still reeling from the effects of the 1973/74 Energy Crisis, the prospect of a 140mph ‘supercar’ that could return up to 30mpg was no bad thing at all. Despite these unpromising beginnings, greatness would head Hethel’s way. The Esprit became Lotus’s first road-car to rival those of its long-time F1 rival, Ferrari. The screaming sports car became a supercar and, once the Esprit Turbo had first made its mark in 1980, Lotus’s claim to be a quality carmaker started to ring more true.

Lotus continues to be a firm well used to crises, and the Esprit was launched in the midst of its most difficult-ever period. In the early 1970s, Chairman Colin Chapman decided the only way the small company would survive — let alone prosper — was to move upmarket, for he knew that expensive cars were less susceptible to economic uncertainties than cheap ones.

How to reinvent Lotus – take it upmarket

A firm with Lotus’s engineering excellence was capable, figured Chapman, of building a genuine British alternative to a Porsche or Ferrari. It was part pragmatism, part pride, and the consequence was that the type of car on which Lotus’s reputation had rested for 15 years was ditched. Out went the Elan, out went the Europa. Instead of chasing people who aspired to a Porsche but couldn’t afford one, Lotus went after people who could.

The young, fast driving set which had formed the majority of Elan/Europa owners was ignored, and older, wealthier buyers were sought. The first stage was the four-seater Elite, launched in 1974. Thanks to its hefty price and the Energy Crisis, the Elite was never a great showroom success.

The company’s difficulties were made worse by the fact that, at that point, Lotus was only a one-product company, awaiting the launch of the Esprit, and the poor sales forced a decision to slash both production and workforce (the latter down from 830 in early 1974 to less than 400 in 1975). The changeover from being the maker of cheap sports cars to makers of prestige cars was never going to be easy but in reality it was more difficult than Chapman ever imagined.

Lotus Europa Special wasn't upmarket enough for Colin Chapman by the early 1970s.
Lotus Europa Special wasn’t upmarket enough for Colin Chapman by the early 1970s

He knew the Esprit would help. The car was to be a spiritual successor to the Europa Twin-Cam, even though both its price and equipment levels were to be higher, but this was because the Esprit was really intended to be the car to lift Lotus into the Ferrari league. Codenamed M70, the mid-engined sports car had first featured in Lotus’s long range plans drawn up in 1970.

The idea was to use as many parts from the yet-to-be-released Elite as possible, including the 16-valve four-cylinder engine then being developed, and a futuristic wedge-shaped body. Chapman must have been wondering who was the best person to design that futuristic body for the M70 when, at the 1971 Geneva Motor Show, he was approached by Giorgetto Giugiaro.

The master Italian stylist told Chapman that he wanted to do a showcar design based on a Lotus. With a background that included work for Bertone and Ghia — frequently on two-seater supercars — Giugiaro’s qualifications were beyond dispute. Chapman agreed, and the Esprit’s modern but simple lines took form.

Lotus Esprit design sketch by Giorgetto Giugiaro
Lotus Esprit design sketch by Giorgetto Giugiaro
The original Lotus Esprit concept by Giugiaro was a product of its time - a definitive '70s supercar...
The original Lotus Esprit concept by Giugiaro now realised as a full-sized model, which became known as ‘the silver car’ – a definitive 1970s supercar…

A cut and shut Europa chassis of intended M70 dimensions was delivered to Giugiaro’s Turin Design Studio to be clothed and, in November 1972, a prototype (above) was shown to the world at the Turin Show, a very angular wedge-shaped design with an extraordinarily steeply raked windscreen. Lotus was enthusiastic about the shape, but also bemused by what would be its inherent production problems.

The Esprit theme had been set, but the productionising of the car had yet to begin. Chapman was also suspicious of the car’s aerodynamics, and soon asked for a second prototype to be made complete with interior and more resolved aerodynamics. He wanted a car capable of being produced in glassfibre (in line with Lotus tradition) rather than one merely to be ogled at.

The second prototype called IDGG 01 and known internally as ‘the red car’ would be built in glassfibre, the first time Giugiaro had worked with this material. Long hours and late nights followed. Some of the important Lotus executives moved to Turin to work close to Giugiaro, including stylist Oliver Winterbottom, who supervised the construction of the Esprit and who also designed the 1974 Elite. Others, including Chapman and Mike Kimberley (later to become Chief Engineer and Managing Director), made frequent private aircraft flights from Norfolk to Italy.

Lotus Esprit second prototype
Lotus Esprit second prototype, known as ‘the red car’, IDGG-01 as built by Ital Design, had many styling differences over the original Giugiaro show car

Giugiaro’s work is improved by the Brits

A quarter-scale model of the original Giugiaro prototype was made and then taken to the MIRA wind tunnel in England. Tests there confirmed what Chapman had suspected – there were bad lift problems, which were undesirable in a high-speed sports car. The changes during this period of development included decreasing the rake of the windscreen by three degrees to comply with US rollover strength legislation and reducing the size of the rear opening door, which had been a full-length hatchback on early designs.

There were also numerous subtle styling differences, both to help Lotus build the body and to enable the car to penetrate the air with less drag and lift. The second prototype (below) was finished in 1973.

Running gear – tried and tested (elsewhere)

The Jensen Healey would end up being something of a test bed for Lotus' new engine.
The Jensen Healey would end up being something of a test bed for Lotus’ new engine

Two years before the Esprit was due to be launched, the new four-cylinder 16-valve engine intended for it made was introduced. The Type 907 engine had been designed by former BRM Engineer Tony Rudd, who had joined Lotus in 1969. This engine produced 140bhp from 1973cc in standard form, and was the first all-Lotus-designed production power unit.

Surprisingly, it had been used first in the Jensen-Healey sports car, a move which cynics said allowed the bugs to be ironed out before it found its way under the bonnet of a Lotus. The high-revving and powerful all-alloy unit soon earned a reputation for a terrible thirst for oil – a trait that went down well neither with Jensen nor its customers – and it took Lotus some time to sort out this problem.

Furthermore, the engine was inordinately harsh at high revs, the result of an inadequately stiff crankcase, and Lotus also had to do a lot of work on the motor’s emission levels to make it acceptable in America, Japan and Australia.

Looking to the French for a gearbox

The Citroen SM would end up being the donor car for the Lotus' transmission issues
The Citroën SM would end up being the donor car for the Lotus’ transmission issues

The Engineers had always anticipated that one of the most difficult problems with its new mid-engined car would be where to locate the rear-mounted transaxle. Lotus found an unlikely saviour: Citroën was about to discontinue production of its magnificent SM flagship, but was able to guarantee long-term supplies of its five-speed gearbox to Lotus.

Fitting the transaxle was not an easy task – it was mated to the engine via a Lotus-designed bellhousing which joined the centre-line of the differential. Selection was via a mix of rods and cables, which ‘broke every engineering law’ according to one Lotus Engineer. Nevertheless, it worked.

One of the priorities had been to give the Esprit a good gearchange, particularly after the atrocious cog-selection problems which had blighted the Europa fitted with its Renault gearbox. With the Citroën SM gearbox and Lotus bellhousing, the company managed it.

Working against an impossible deadline

In between trying to get the new Elite ready for production and curing the problems inherent with the 16-valve engine, Lotus toiled to get the Esprit developed for Chapman’s Christmas deadline. Tony Rudd took overall responsibility, including specific engine and suspension work, Colin Spooner was responsible for the chassis and body and his brother Brian concentrated on adapting the Citroën gearbox.

On Christmas Eve, one day ahead of the deadline, the team had a car to show the boss, although it was not a runner. The Esprit prototype’s first real test in front of the boss was early in 1975, when Tony Rudd surprised Chapman by arriving to collect him in it at Heathrow Airport, after the first Grand Prix of the year. Chapman drove it part of the way back to Hethel before a hub carrier broke.

By early 1975, it really had to be a success: the Elan and Europa had ceased production and Lotus’ only model was the new Elite, which was selling just 20-25 cars per month. This would prove to be just enough to see Lotus through to the launch of the new Esprit at the Paris Motor Show in 1975. That was when, according to Motor Sport magazine, ‘the most exciting, attractive, series-production British sports car since the Jaguar E-type‘ was unveiled.

Lotus Esprit – state of the art in 1976

Lotus Esprit cutaway drawing
Lotus Esprit cutaway drawing

The Lotus twin-cam 2.0-litre engine, mounted longitudinally at 45 degrees to the horizontal, now developed 155bhp at 6580rpm in the Series 1 Esprit, and 140lb ft of torque at 4800rpm, breathing through twin Dellorto carburettors. The car’s glassfibre reinforced plastic body was made in two halves and then bonded together at the prominent waistline, riding on a steel backbone tubular frame, partly sheet-braced.

The front suspension used Vauxhall Cavalier Mk1 double wishbones with integrated coil spring/damper units, and a Cavalier anti-roll bar. Cavalier front discs were also borrowed, and the steering rack was from the Elite.

At the back, the suspension was simple, unusual and flawed. The Esprit used its fixed-length driveshafts to form what was, in effect, its upper suspension links (Elite driveshafts and hubs were used). There were also box-framed trailing arms, a lower lateral link and integral coil spring/damper units. The rear discs were inboard.

Interior and quality disappointments

The Lotus Esprit Series I interior looked good, but was lacking in quality
The Lotus Esprit Series I interior looked good, but was lacking in quality

Inside, the Esprit was a mixture of good news and bad. The dash consisted of a futuristic wraparound facia which contained the main gauges (which were hard to read) and the switchgear while, in between this and the driver, was a cheap plastic two-spoke steering wheel.

The interior ventilation was terrible and rear three-quarter vision was almost non-existent, but all these problems notwithstanding, the Esprit received a great reception at its world debut and, when it went on sale in June 1976, it looked like Lotus had built a winner. Its success came not a moment too soon.

Series 2 only partially fixes the problems

Lotus Esprit Series 2
Lotus Esprit Series 2

The Series 1 was in production for two years before being superseded by the Series 2 in May 1978. Some of the S1 problems were solved with the new S2; many were not. Lotus already knew its rear suspension layout was inadequate for a car of this performance (even though it had worked well on the Elite), and knew that the chassis had to be made stiffer. It reworked neither, however, for the S2.

What they did do was improve the 16-valve engine and give it more mid-range pull (an improvement effected on some late S1 models, too) and better economy. New alloy wheels, made specially for Lotus by the Italian makers Speedline, replaced the off-the-shelf Wolfrace wheels which had looked so prosaic on the S1. A front wraparound spoiler was used, as were wider Rover SD1 tail lamps (subsequently used on all Lotuses).

The Veglia instruments were replaced by Smiths ones, and the standard of interior trim was massively improved. Mind you, the trim should have been revised, for with the launch of the S2, the price of the Esprit had rocketed to £11,124. The one-time kit car maker was now selling, truly, a Porsche-priced car, but it still wasn’t building its cars as well as Porsche.

The S1 had had many teething problems, and Tony Rudd later said, ‘I reckon we solved 90% of the problems before manufacture, but there were others who reckoned I solved 10% and they did the rest trying to put it into production.’

Lotus Esprit Turbo breezes in

Lotus Esprit Essex Turbo
Lotus Esprit Essex Turbo

In 1980, the Esprit Turbo was launched in limited edition Essex Turbo form. It marked the long-awaited turning point for Lotus. At last, here was a car that was potentially good enough to take on – and beat – a Ferrari 308 GTB. The high-speed Esprit variant had originally been scheduled to have a V8 engine, rather than a turbo four-cylinder. The chassis engine cradle was given room for an engine with two banks of four cylinders. Nonetheless, Powertrain Engineering Manager Graham Atkin favoured the idea of a turbo four, largely on the grounds of cost, and his voice eventually won through.

Such engines were starting to gain favour then thanks to the work of companies like Porsche and Saab. In typical Lotus fashion, the turbo transformation was clever. The design of the Esprit Turbo involved a massive upgrade to the S2 specification. To make it look more aggressive and increase the downforce, Giugiaro was asked to design a new bodykit with aerodynamic upgrades, and replied by designing wraparound bumpers, large front and rear spoilers and deep skirts under the door sills.

The changes to the engine were far more extensive. A longer-stroke crankshaft increased its capacity from 1973cc to 2174cc and a Garrett AiResearch T3 turbo force-fed pressurised air into the two twin-barrel Dellorto carburettors. The compression ratio was lowered and the engine was strengthened to take the greater internal pressures. The power went up by 35% to 210bhp at 6500rpm, and torque rose by 43% to 200lb ft at 4000-4500rpm. The clutch diameter was increased by an inch (2.4 cm), although the gearbox and final drive remained unchanged.

Chassis improvements revolutionise the Turbo

The chassis and suspension were also extensively altered. The chassis was new with Lotus-designed and built upper wishbone/lower transverse link front suspension (replacing the GM-derived original) attached to a new front box section. At the rear, where there had always been a handling problem on the S1 and S2, short top suspension links were added to take the loads imposed on the driveshafts. The trouble with the old system had been that, to a large extent, the engine mounts’ compliance had determined the handling.

If good roadholding was to be maintained the result was excessive engine noise and vibration. The new chassis also had 50% better torsional rigidity than the S1/S2, which also helped to explain the more faithful handling of the Turbo when compared with earlier models.

Wider 60-profile tyres were fitted front and rear, the interior was leather-trimmed, air conditioning was standard and a better steering wheel was fitted. Top speed was 152mph compared with the S2’s 135mph, with 0-60mph in 5.5 seconds.

Turbo goes mainstream and S3 is launched

Lotus Esprit Series 3 (1981)
Lotus Esprit Series 3 (1981)

In April 1981 the mechanically identical but less luxuriously equipped series production Esprit Turbo was launched to replace the colourfully adorned Essex Turbo version. At less than £17,000 – compared with £21,000 for the Essex – it was a far more sensibly priced.

Numerous road tests soon verified that the Turbo was one of Europe’s most competent supercars. Its beautifully-engineered turbocharged engine gave strong performance, it had razor-sharp handling and prodigious roadholding, although it still didn’t have the ultimate badge kudos of its Porsche and Ferrari rivals, but as a driver’s car, it probably had the measure of the 308GTBi, which had its wings clipped in 1981 due to a power drop that marked the arrival of fuel injection.

The Esprit Turbo’s upgrades also helped produce a better naturally-aspirated car. First, as the Series 2.2, which was launched not long after the Turbo in April 1980, and then as the altogether more superior S3 in 1981, which received all of the chassis and suspension upgrades from the Turbo. The exterior was tidied up over the S2.2, with none of its obtrusive matt black paint finish, and the quality control was noticeably improved.

Lotus’ standards steadily improved throughout the 1980s, while the under-the-skin development meant that dynamics seriously moved on, too. It was all looking good for Lotus and the Esprit especially as it sauntered through 1981 and into 1982.

Back to the future

Lotus Etna
The stunning Lotus Etna from 1984 led the way to the Peter Stevens Esprit redesign three years later…

Colin Chapman, Lotus founder and inspirational driving force behind the company, suddenly died in December 1982. The company was already beginning to struggle at that point. It had been involved in the collapse of the DeLorean DMC-12 project, and finances weren’t on their strongest footing. New ownership for the firm was split between Chapman’s family, investors British Car Auctions (BCA) which took the controlling stake, and Toyota. In 1984, JCB then took an 11% stake, followed by Toyota upping its share to 20% – with the company being run ably by long-time Lotus man, Mike Kimberley.

Development on ambitious projects such as a new-generation Elan (Project M100), a V8-engined Esprit (Project M71) and productionisation of the glorious Giugiaro-penned Etna prototype (above) of 1984 were a luxury the company couldn’t afford at the time.

That left further development of the Esprit as the only viable option for the medium term and, although it was clear that chassis dynamics were still pretty much beyond reproach, the styling – no matter how devastating back in 1975 – needed a serious update. After three years of uncertainty, General Motors bought out Lotus in January 1986 – meaning Project M100 was back on line, and a thoroughly updated Esprit (known as Project X180) could happen more quickly.

Lotus styling entrusted to Peter Stevens

Peter Stevens, a long-established industry Designer (who once self-deprecatingly owned up to being responsible for the headlamp design of the Ford Capri II), was deeply involved in the Lotus Design Studio at the time. Having already seen Oliver Winterbottom turn the Eclat into the Excel, Peter Stevens’ team then turned its attention to the Esprit – with the initial design brief being to keep costs down while giving the car a whole new look.

The brief for the re-skin was passed to Stevens – and preliminary sketches had been produced in October 1985. The project was kept very much on the sidelines, and most of Lotus’ senior personnel only found out about the new Esprit when the glass fibre mock-up was presented to them in February 1986, just after the GM takeover.

Lotus Esprit Turbo
Significantly changed styling for the 1987 Esprit…

Julian Thomson (much later the stylist of the Range Rover Evoque and Design Director of Jaguar from July 2019), also worked on the original car, smoothing off the sharp edges of the original wedge, and heralding in a more organic look. The rear end now featured flying buttresses to replace the previously tailgated rear, and the rest of the car was treated to wrap around moulded bumpers and a more curvaceous windscreen glass. Rearwards visibility was not only improved by the revised rear window arrangement, but also because of the fitment of those elegant-looking Citroën CX door mirrors (Stevens would use them again later on more than one occasion).

Fewer changes underneath

Under the skin, the chassis set-up remained unchanged. The stiffer bodyshell meant suspension could be made more compliant and uprated brakes and gearbox (finally seeing the end of the Citroën SM five-speeder used since launch) completed the engineering story.

The turbocharged engine received a further 5bhp, boosting power to 215bhp – and performance was perked up. With a top speed knocking on the door of 160mph, and a 0-60mph time of just over five seconds, the Lotus Esprit Turbo was more than a match for rivals from Porsche and Ferrari. The four-cylinder engine may well have sounded a little ordinary in comparison to its symphonic rivals, but there was no mistaking the results…

Inside, the dashboard remained largely unchanged – save for a few more tweaks, and the addition of Austin Maestro switchgear. Stevens wanted more, of course, and had it been up to the accountants, the original interior would have been carried over unchanged.

Supercar transformation

The new look went down a treat with buyers – as well as critics in the press – proving that Lotus was still adept at producing sports cars with panache and added value.

However, as the ’90s beckoned, it was clear that turbocharged 16-valve engine were no longer the preserve of the exotic, and plenty of rivals were churning out mass-produced alternatives with similar amounts of power, at a lower cost. The V8 idea never really went away, but with the development team now clearly focusing on the upcoming front-wheel-drive Elan, this was not going to happen for some time to come. What was needed, therefore, was further expansion of the slant-four engine.

New pistons, induction system, a charge air-cooler, direct ignition system and new Delco engine management were added, breathing life into the existing four-cylinder power unit – which its maker claimed to be the most powerful 16-valve engine in the world. This bevy of changes upped the power output to a highly impressive 264bhp – and it seemed fitting to give the new supercar slayer from Lotus the ‘SE’ tag (below).

The charge-cooled SE arrives

Lotus Esprit Turbo SE
Lotus Esprit Turbo SE

Despite the fact that previous generations of Esprit had supercar looks and go, they remained in the First Division, rather than the Premier League. The introduction of the Turbo SE meant the Esprit could now scorch from 0-60mph in 4.7 seconds and crack 160mph with ease. Nothing at that price point came close in terms of sheer unadulterated driving pleasure – here was a car built for one thing only: to get from A to B via C as quickly as possible…

In 1991, the non-turbo version was dropped from the range – its appeal had been rapidly waning, anyway – and this left the company to concentrate on building ever-quicker and more focused versions of the Esprit. Fans would not be disappointed.

Despite being in the autumn of its life, the Esprit’s day was a long way from being over during the 1990s. In 1993, the S4-series was launched (although it should have logically been called the S5). The exterior styling received the subtlest of tweaks – because, let’s face it, there was little wrong with the Peter Stevens makeover. You’d need to look closely for the re-profiled bumpers and smaller spoiler on the outside – although another giveaway was the replacement of those Marina door handles with those from the Vauxhall Cavalier Mk3.

Lotus Esprit Turbo
Interior came in for a lot of criticism in later years…

The interior was made-over more radically than usual – receiving a fair portion of chunky Vauxhall-derived switchgear as well as a re-profiled instrument binnacle. More importantly, for the first time ever in an Esprit, power steering was fitted, delivering more agility through the improved suspension set-up.

The competitive list price and sweet exterior styling allowed the Esprit to punch above its weight, although they were nothing compared with the thrilling dynamics and performance of the car. Yes, the cracks were beginning to show in interior department, but if you were focused purely on excitement, few experiences came close to that of wringing the neck of an Esprit on a racing circuit.

Despite the Esprit’s new lease of life, Lotus found itself in the wars again thanks to parent company General Motors’ financial traumas of the early Nineties and that saw Lotus fall into the hands of an unexpected new owner – Bugatti. Italian investor Romano Artioli, had bought the rights to the defunct French marque in 1990, and turned it into a short-lived supercar builder (before Volkswagen-Audi took over and did the job more effectively – and pointlessly), and took on Lotus as well on the back of the company’s legendary research and development capability.

That saw a fresh injection of cash that would ultimately lead to the creation and introduction of the Elise – and the V8-powered Esprit.

And to the end…

Bugatti didn’t stay on board long – by 1996, it was bankrupt, and Lotus had been sold to the Malaysian company, Proton. The V8, unveiled at that year’s Geneva Motor Show, was the Italian company’s parting gift for the Esprit range, and became a final, late flowering of the timeless design.

The 3.5-litre twin-turbo V8 produced 350bhp, delivered a 0-60mph time of 4.5 seconds and a top speed of 171mph – performance and handling were typically brilliant, although the cabin architecture was now becoming something of an unfunny joke. Its styling still had that wow factor that set the Esprit apart as a true supercar – and now with an engine to match there was nothing to stop it from achieving immortality.

It was in this form that the Esprit pretty much finished out its days – production of the Elise and the Vauxhall VX220 was keeping Lotus busy, and the Esprit became very much a fringe activity for the company. A couple of years later, the V8 model range was expanded to incorporate GT and SE specifications – and, a year later, the most exclusive model of them all, the Sport 350, was unveiled. So called because it developed a cool 350bhp, only the very fastest cars available could see it off…

In 2002, the Esprit received its final facelift, gaining new rear lights and a few other cosmetic adjustments – it was in this form that the car finally went out of production in 2004, on the eve of its 30th birthday. It truly was a classic you could buy new.

Although the introduction of the Peter Stevens-designed Esprit had been a major landmark in the car’s long life, it’s sometimes hard to believe that it was only a third of a way through the production cycle of this iconic sports car. Although most classic car fans still associate the name ‘Esprit’ with James Bond’s wedge, perhaps it’s now time to re-evaluate the situation, and conclude that the real storm happened in 1987, and it was actually orchestrated by Peter Stevens into something considerably more enduring.

Lotus Esprit 300
Esprit 300 Sport was the ultimate four-cylinder incarnation…
Keith Adams


  1. My childhood dream was (and always will be) the XJ40. But yes, I’d take one over a Ferrari any day!

  2. I don’t want to deny the Esprit its “Hallo” effect in the Lotus range, but for me, the Elite in 1974 was THE turning point for Lotus. I certainly won’t own one in this life, but I find her quite appealing…

  3. The Peter Stevens restyle was a brilliant improvement on the original. For me the words supercar and 4-cylinder are not compatible so if I was to choose one of these as a favourite it could only be the V8. I wonder if they gave many thoughts to putting the PRV V6 into it like the DeLorean DMC12 ?

  4. The PRV V6, worthy though it was as a saloon propellant, was totally unsporting and too heavy for a mid engined car . The turbocharged version used in the A610 was slightly more suitable but still too heavy for its position. As far as 4 cylinders not being suitable for a supercar, at the time many of the successful F1 cars were 4 cylinder turbos !

  5. Remember reading a while back the 1973 oil crisis made Lotus temporarily consider developing an 1800cc version of the Slant-Four engine, a proposal that Colin Chapman quickly dismissed.

    Cannot seem to find any reference such a proposal was ever considered though beyond Lotus’s shelved 4-litre V8 project that could have potentially spawned a 4.4-litre V8.

  6. Apologies for small pedant bit – the Excel was the work of Oliver Winterbottom, Peter Stevens did the flared arch facelift.

    Incidentally folks, Peter Stevens Facepage is well worth a trawl through, some fascinating articles and pics of unseen lotus work, he has a nice website too.

  7. Always wanted one and got close back in the early 00’s but was scared off by it’s poor reliability as it would have been my only car. My young heart was overruled by my old brain!

  8. The Esprit arrived at the right time, the energy crisis years, when soaring petrol prices, severe inflation, a supertax on the rich and stricter speed limits could have killed off the supercar. A 140 mph car with the same fuel consumption as a Cortina, rustproof bodywork and Ferrari like styling, what wasn’t there to like. Also the James Bond connection helped sales and the Turbo version was an awesome competitor to its rivals from Italy and Germany.
    Also I’m sure the Esprit was an inspiration for the Porsche 944( the 924 was seen as a bit pedestrian), which offered 150 mph performance with 30 mpg fuel consumption and lower ownership costs than the 911.

  9. I agree the Espirit was introduced at just the right time for Lotus.

    The Europa was getting old & the 7 sold off to Caterham so it was a good chance to make a fresh start.

    The Elite / Eclat / Excel family also had the wedge theme.

    IIRC the Porsche 924 was originally intended to be an Audi.

  10. @ Richard 16378, it was a supercar that was just right for the times, fast enough to keep up with far more expensive Italian supercars, but without the need to use a gallon of petrol every 12 miles. I’d imagine as well, the Esprit’s lowish fuel consumption would make it practical on a long journey, making a journey from Edinburgh to the South Coast possible on one tank( I do recall some Italian supercars needing a full tank every 200 miles).

  11. Still looks the part even now… great in all the colours shown here. I never realised it originally had Morris Marina door handles – they look better on the Esprit than on a Marina, but the MK3 Cavaliers look better. Thanks Matthew for an excellent feature.

  12. @ Hilton D, it’s odd how parts from run of the mill cars end up on specialist cars. Aston Martin’s V8 used rear lights from a Hillman Hunter and the Lotus Europa used the rear lights from the Mark 1 Escort. Yet the Marina’s door handles always looked quite cool and up to date and it’s no wonder they found a use on another car.

  13. I guess it’s easier for smaller makers to buy in parts rather than have them sepcially made.

    TVR & Reliant often raided the Ford parts bins, & even Bristol used Vauxhall Senator rear lights.

  14. Given the original Lotus V8 project was a 4-litre why did Lotus decide to instead develop a 3.5-litre V8 Twin-Turbo for the Esprit?

    While it is mentioned the Lotus Slant-4 engine allegedly could not be fitted inside a Lotus Elise and that the Rover K-Series was always the intended engine for the original Elise project (along with other joint-projects), it makes one wonder whether other engines were considered for the Elise S1.

    As creating a Slant-4 out of the 3.5-litre Lotus V8, one ends up with a displacement of 1753cc capable of roughly putting out around 120-150 hp in naturally aspirated form and around 180-250 hp in turbocharged form.

  15. “Lotus continues to be a firm well used to crises, and the Esprit was launched in the midst of its most difficult-ever period. In the early ’70s, chairman Colin Chapman decided the only way the small company would survive — let along prosper — was to move upmarket, for he knew that expensive cars were less susceptible to economic uncertainties than cheap ones.”

    In retrospect it was a mistake for Chapman to move upmarket and not directly replace the Elan, as segment retreat eventually led to it being taken over the MX-5.

    Seem to recall a link a few years back mentioning engineers looking into a 1600-1800cc Lotus Slant-4 during the 1973 Oil Crisis only for it to be vetoed by Chapman.

    Given Lotus used the Vauxhall Slant-4 as test-beds to speed up development for their own (largely unrelated) Slant-4 design, a 1600-1800cc Lotus Slant-4 (putting out roughly 115-140 hp up to 150 hp – sans turbo variants) for a direct 1970s Elan replacement should have been theoretically possible, featuring either an update of the existing Elan’s styling (albeit better executed compared to the later Vegantune Evante replica) or basically being a 2-door 2-seater Eclat/Excel in terms of styling.

    • There was a 15 year gap between the Elan being pensioned off & the MX-5 being launched, & during this time was the golden age of the hot hatch & Reganomics which caused problems for so many small sports cars.

      Lotus brought out the FWD Elan not long after the MX-5 so they didn’t totally take their eyes off the ball.

      • While the golden age of the hot hatch, etc did contribute towards the decline of the small sports car prior to the MX-5, the fact is Lotus could have stayed in the game even profited from the fuel crisis era with a smaller Eclat/Excel based Elan replacement (which would have benefited Lotus’s other stillborn projects and perhaps even brought forward the Lotus V8 engine).

        It would have benefited the company to not retreat from the segment at a time where other rivals were either making old fashioned (MG – Midget / B, Triumph Spitfire), under-powered (Fiat via X1/9) or under-developed offerings (Reliant Scimitar SS1).

        Sure, Lotus belatedly attempted to remedy the issue with the Elan M90 project prior to the Elan M100 though while the latter was considered one of the world’s best FWD cars. It cannot be considered an adequate Elan replacement unlike the later Elise or even the earlier M90 project had it reached production.

        • You’re probably right, Fiat & Alfa Romeo managed to keep their Spyders in production in the 1980s so the market wasn’t totally dead.

          How involved was Lotus with the Jensen Healy, apart from supplying the engines?

          • Then Toyota and Mazda entered the sports car market and the MR2 and MX 5 sold well. I think the problem with MG was their cars had become starved of investment in the seventies, they were old fashioned and not very powerful, and the market was moving on.

          • Both Fiat and Alfa Romeo did indeed managed to keep their Spyders in production, the latter even until the 1990s though did not appear to do much with them once the MR-2 and MX-5 appeared on the scene.

            AFAIK Lotus supplying the engines was the extent of their involvement with the Jensen-Healey, in retrospect though the prototypes of the latter actually had better styling compared to the production car (particularly at the front via the rejected William Towns proposal and others with either a smoother vaguely MGB-like front or a more TR6-like front).

            Also while it would have been ideal for Jensen-Healey to have had a properly developed Lotus Slant-4 engine from the outset (instead of being used as the sacrificial test-bed), they would have probably been better off using another engine such as from Volvo, Simca (e.g. Type 180 – including a later 16-valve Twin-Cam head designed for the unit by Riccardo planned for introduction in 1975), Rover V8 or BMW M10/M30 (Geoffrey Healey suggested Qvale short-circuited an approach to BMW by talking to them directly and being unrealistic about the cars being made per week).

            An early 2-litre B or O-Series could have helped the MGB, yet against the competition they really needed something like the EX234 prototype (with engines ranging from 1300-2000cc or 1600-2000cc) that could have featured a similarly long production run as Fiat’s and Alfa Romeo’s own sportscars (followed by updates including RV8-like facelift, M/T-Series engines and Hydragas suspension).

            Lower-end versions of a hypothetical Eclat/Excel derived Elan replacement could have still later utilized both the styling and the Toyota/Isuzu-sourced 1.6 engines of the M90 / M100 (either slotting below the Lotus Slant-4s or replacing the 1600-1800cc versions) during the 1980s-1990s prior to being replaced by the Elise.

      • The market for the traditional small sports car was badly dented when MG and Triumph stopped making sports cars. The TR7 could have been kept going as the last models were far better made than the Speke cars, but a strong pound and a recession was killing sales in America, and British Leyland saw the car as an expensive irrelevance by 1981. Fiat still had the X 1/9 and there were specialist low volume companies like Caterham, but the small sports car market was a fraction the size it was in 1970.

        • To be fair Fiat could have probably reignited interest in the small sports car segment had they opted to fit the 1.3/1.4 Turbo or even a tuned 1.6 version of the 128 SOHC engines into the X1/9, apparently in 1984 Bertone proposed an updated X1/9 featuring an attractive facelift including Porsche-like glass-back and Uno Turbo engine propelling it up to 130 mph (which could have allowed it to remain in production a bit longer prior to being directly replaced by the Barchetta in the mid-1990s as was the case with the larger Alfa Romeo Spider).

          The TR7 could have indeed been kept in production until at least the mid/late-1980s, the planned Broadside / RT061 proposals did look attractive however the TR7 was conceived to be a more upmarket car compared to the MGB as opposed to outright replacement like the EX234 prototype (notwithstanding the idea of spawning a 1.7 O-Series variant to indirectly replace the Midget/Spitfire).

  16. Lotus also offered a budget entry to the joys of driving a Lotus when they made a version of the Talbot Sunbeam, again just right for the fuel crtisis, recessionary era at the end of the seventies. It did seem Lotus could offer you the joys of supercar driving without the huge prices and running costs associated with Italian supercars. Also being British, there were patriotic reasons for buying a Lotus.

  17. The “original ” Esprit is still to me the definitive version, back from a time when British manufacturers weren’t afraid to sell completely modern cars, it still looks far more modern than any current Lotus

    The V8 had a very short production life of only 8 years, which seems a waste. Indeed there have been few British V8s with short lives, when you consider the short lived Triumph and TVR V8s as well

  18. It’s a shame the link with Peugeot Talbot was broken in 1981 when Linwood was closed and the Lotus Sunbeam was scrapped. America had a hot version of the Horizon, so why not transfer the 2.2 Lotus engine to the British Horizon, which with improved handling, a five speed gearbox to aid refinement and economy( something which was a bit lacking in the Sunbeam) and Lotus badges could have become a real GTi beater. Also since American Hortizons came with a 2.2 litre Chrysler engine, there would be little difficulty in fitting the Lotus engine to the Talbot.

  19. Likely because the European and North American Horizons are different cars beneath the exterior styling, along with a question of whether the 2.2 Lotus Slant-4 could be mounted in a transversely FWD layout.

    Because the European Horizon was derived from a shortened Chrysler Alpine, the former receiving the 2.2 Lotus Slant-4 engine would depend on the Alpine featuring the originally planned 1.6-2.2 Type 180 engines.

    Due to the North American Horizon (also known as the Chrysler L platform) featuring large more potent engines, it is possible a European adapted version of the North American Horizon as planned in better circumstances could have featured the 2.2 Lotus Slant-4. Additionally the North American Horizon did form the basis of the larger Chrysler K platform and apparently featured AWD versions (though the only reference appears to be on early 1990s Chrysler minivans as opposed to any models from the 1980s).

    Perhaps if Chrysler was in a much better financial position than an AWD version of the North American Horizon would have been feasible for both sides of the Atlantic.

    More interested to know whether the Talbot Arizona (aka Peugeot 309) had any room to feature anything like the 2.2 Lotus Slant-4.

  20. Lotus was working with Chrysler in the mid-1980s/early 1990s on a number of programs. The only one to make it to production was the DOHC cylinder head for Chrysler’s 2.2-liter inline four. Best known for its appearance under the hood of the Dodge Spirit R/T, the combination of the free-breathing head, Garrett turbocharger, and intercooler helped the balance-shafted engine produce 224 hp and 218 lb.-ft. of torque. It was mated to a five-speed Getrag transaxle, and made the Spirit the fastest volume-produced four-door sedan available in the U.S. upon its debut in 1991. It also was all that was left of Chrysler’s plans to have Lotus build it a version of the Esprit.

    What most people don’t know is that Lotus was doing a lot of work for Chrysler at the time. In 1985, Lotus was tasked with designing a DOHC version of the 2.5-liter four, which produced approximately 150 hp and had a 7,500 rpm redline. It was one of the motors that was to be offered in the Dodge Daytona, with the turbo from the Spirit R/T planned as the only engine for the AWD Daytona. Audi’s Coupe Qyattro was the target for that vehicle, and John Miles was the chassis development lead for Lotus on that car. Word was the car was quite close to its target, and that Miles worked closely with Roger Becker on this and other Chrysler vehicle dynamics projects. Unfortunately, the AWD Daytona was cancelled in late 1987 after Chrysler joined forces with Mitsubishi to produce what became know as the “Diamond Star cars” (Plymouth Laser, Mitsubishi Eclipse, and Eagle Talon) built at the Diamond Star plant in Bloomington-Normal, Illinois from early 1989. Dodge was scheduled to get is own version of the car, but it was shifted over to the Eagle division to give it a vehicle that would increase showroom traffic.

    Money was tight at Chrysler, and the lifeline from Mitsubishi allowed it to upgrade and update its lineup with what effectively was other people’s money. Sadly, however, no attempt was made to revive another project that had succumbed to the budget man’s axe, the Chrysler version of the Esprit.

    Lee Iacocca was nothing if not a salesman, and knew the effect a halo car like the Esprit would have on the Chrysler/Dodge/Plymouth/Eagle lineups. Lotus, struggling with budget crises of its own, also knew the effect a deal like this would have on its bottom line. The transverse powertrain found in the Spirit R/T was originally created for this car, where it would be placed in a new, purpose-designed chassis, and clothed it in modified Esprit bodywork. The change in engine orientation reportedly liberated five inches of interior room, some of which was used to increase seat travel, while the rest was commandeered for a padded, leather-covered luggage tray. There were even plans to develop small jump seats to give the car 2+2 capability, but it’s unclear how far, if at all, this proposal progressed. There also was room for a cargo container behind the engine and gearbox. Either this box or the interior luggage tray was said to be capable of holding a pair of golf bags.

    Reportedly, an engineering prototype of the “Chrysler Esprit” was made, but it’s unclear what happened to it upon cancellation of the program.

    • Aside from Lotus’s work on the Chrysler 2.2 & 2.5 engine, along with the planned AWD Dodge Daytona* and Chrysler’s version of the Lotus Esprit**, where there any other Chrysler projects that Lotus was involved in?

      *- Was the AWD Dodge Daytona the same project as the AWD Lamborghini Jalpa V8-powered Decepzione or either a related or separate development? Is it known how the planned 2.2 or 2.5 turbo engine used for the AWD Dodge Daytona prototype compared with the 250-255 hp 3.5-litre Jalpa V8?

      **- Am assuming this 225 hp 2.2 Spirit R/T powered Chrysler Esprit would have replaced the Lotus 900 Series Slant-Four engines though would it have completely butterflied the away Lotus 900-Series V8 or did Lotus (then owned IIRC by General Motors) have something else in mind like the LT5 V8 or given their links with Isuzu via the FWD Elan (also connected to GM) perhaps even an all-alloy 32-valve 240+ hp 3.5-litre Isuzu V8 that was originally planned for the unbuilt Chevrolet Beretta V8 (dubbed the “Feretta V8”)?

      Also wonder where the Esprit-bodied SID research vehicle fits in (featuring a 300 hp turbo V6 four-wheel drive package from the Metro 6R4)? –

  21. Well being far away from the development saga , it was through the world express yearly auto mag and the 007 flick for the first time we came across the Esprit.First we were spelling it as ESPIRIT , but were bemused after knowing it was “ESPRIT”.But the sheer fantasy created for that movie is beyond anyone’s fathom of imagination and the movie buffs were swept by the awe for generations .
    Any automobile is a trait of engineering capabilities and that too for a mid-engineered sports car is nothing but a out and out demonstration of adherent person’s skill, passion and a burning desire.Venturing and carving a niche after a soul stirring efforts and grit with determination resulting in birth of a ICON and ESPRIT is in that league.
    Setting a foot in a fort of established and proven marque’s that too the cars hailed as incarnation of god on roads engulfed with orthodox followers where in worshiping them , and carving a niche a cut above the rest is not an ordinary feat. Let it be anybody make sure they are swayed by the car’s bewitching looks, hooked firmly by the extra-ordinary dimensions of the rubbers ,guided by pop-up headlamps setting as a breed apart.
    And for me it was Sharon Stone who created a stir and for millions by piloting the mean machine on the winding roads of San Francisco and I think movie buffs were mesmerized by this legendary car’s indulgence in hot pursuits in a Hollywood thriller Basic Instinct.
    And for a piece of information this car is featured in our Bollywood (Hindi)movie RANGEELA for a few seconds in a couple of scenes.

    • We were discussing Roger Moore’s use of the Lotus Esprit on a forum on Facebook. The Esprit could do everything an Aston Martin V8 could, but looked less bulky and far more modern and didn’t need a gallon of petrol every 10 miles, important in the era of high energy prices in the late seventies and early eighties. In For Your Eyes Only, Roger’s Esprit with the two tone paint and the skis on the roof looked briilliant.

      • I think they were trying to give Roger Moore’s films a different feel to the Connery era.

        The Lotus Esprit was a good choice just as a Glenn mentions above.

        • You are right – the Connery era was a big straight laced with the odd quip, but they wanted to add more comedy. Diamonds are Forever is a perfect example of this, as it was written for Roger Moore but due to his contract with the Lew Grade he could not be released and Sean came back. The humour is noticeable in this film compared to the previous Bond’s and was definitely close to that of the Moore era.

      • If I recall correctly he left that Esprit with the ski rack in For Your Eyes Only at the bottom of the ski slopes in Cortina (Italy). I wonder if it is still there?

  22. Speaking of Lotuses, the last series of The Avengers has finished its re run on ITV 4 and Linda Thorson drives a very nice Lotus Europa Special similar to the one at the top of the article. While best known for Patrick Macnee’s vintage Bentley, Lotus enjoyed a good relationship with the Avengers, providing cars for Diana Rigg and Linda Thorson.

  23. @daveh, Top Gear was a serious motoring programme back then and completely different from what the BBC makes now, although Noel Edmonds was a presenter for a time in the eighties and played it straight. The programme only became light hearted around 1990 when Jeremy Clarkson was given a humourous slot, among all the test drives of family cars and features on fuel economy.

  24. Growing up in the 70s (born 64) the Supercars I used to draw looked like an Esprit, may be it was lack of aspiration on my part, but the look along with the Merak touched me much more than the Countach.

    Lotus have at last with the Emira produced something worthy to succeed the Esprit and of course we have gone full circle to a car offering Super Car performace with a 2 litre 4 cylinder power unit.

  25. I saw the Bond car when I was 10 and vowed I’d have one by the time I turned 35. At age 35 I found a white S3 in Essex. Loved that car, even though it spent more time in the classic car garage than my garage! Wept when a crazy German guy bought it and attempted to take it to Germany. Took it to an expo once and met Caroline Munro – she was gracious enough to accept my invitation to take photos with my Lotus but security weren’t having it.

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