Raise a glass to : 40 years of the Citroën BX

Although we didn’t know it at the time, the Citroën BX was a massive gamechanger for its maker. Light, efficient and fun, it exploded into view on 23 September 1982. 

Keith Adams raises a glass to this surprising sales hit here during the 1980s – proof positive that sometimes us Brits love a bit of French flair on our driveways.

Citroën BX: the reluctant winner

Launched triumphantly under the Eiffel Tower 40 years ago today, the Citroën BX proved to be more of a game-changer for the company than even its most optimistic executives could have possibly dreamed. Conceived in the mid-1970s to plug the yawning gap in the model range between the GS and CX, and known as Projet XB, what would become the BX ended up selling more than two million copies between 1982 and 1994.

Moreover, it turbocharged its maker’s market share here in the UK after it went on sale here in 1983 against some pretty tough opposition. However, it took perseverance and an ever-expanding model range, combined with competitive pricing, and what was probably the best all-round diesel engine money could buy at the time. But we’re getting ahead of ourselves here…

Rewind to 1982, and the BX found itself sharing headline space with the Audi 100 (C3) and Ford Sierra both of which were launched within days of the feisty new Citroën midliner. And as such, this Gandini-styled, origami piece of design found itself curiously off the pace, at a time that had seen car design vaulted into a more organic era. A drag coefficient of 0.35 looked distinctly average compared with the two aforementioned rivals – especially considering the GS X3’s Cd was a mere 0.318 in 1978…

Start small and grow quickly

There were just two basic power units at launch in 1982. A 1360cc version of PSA’s ‘Douvrin’ transmission-in-sump X-engine, and a 1580cc version of the recently-launched XU petrol engines. Inside, the BX boasted a typically-Citroën set of instruments, with the speedo represented by a rotating drum a-la CX, and equally idiosyncratic switchgear.

However, it was roomy inside, well priced, and well equipped, too. Lightweight construction (from 800kg in entry-level guise) with plenty of polycarbonate external panels gave it decent performance for its engine capacity, too. The BX also spanned market sectors, with an engine range that screamed Escort/Astra rival, and interior accommodation that rivalled the Sierra/Cavalier. As us BMC>MGR fans know, this strategy rarely works.

In order to appeal to conservative buyers put off by Citroën ‘s reputation for complexity it was advertised under the clever strapline, ‘Loves driving… hates garages’ – which did the trick more than the commercial copywriters dared to hope.

It was based on an all-new platform (that would end up being shared with the Peugeot 405) and, in true Citroën style, it boasted Hydropneumatic spheres instead of springs. It might have been a less technically ‘pure’ set-up than the GS, instead using McPherson struts upfront and a version of the 305 Break’s horizontal set-up at the rear, it was still very effective, offering a typically Citroën-smooth ride and height-adjustable self-levelling.

Expansion of the range

As the decade progressed, the BX range expanded and was improved. First by the addition of a 1.9-litre XUD diesel engine, followed by a powerful petrol boasting the same displacement of 1905cc. In carburetted GT form, it boasted 105bhp, but more was to come later. The five-door hatchback was joined by a Heuliez-built five-door estate known as the Break in France – and it was this model that really made best use of the car’s brilliant suspension system.

In 1986, the BX received a light facelift. It was given more solid-looking front wings, a conventional dashboard with – gasp – traditional analogue dials and switchgear, and a wider model range with more of a structured ‘ladder’ up the range. Out went the old 1360cc Douvin power unit to be replaced by the brilliant TU engine that also displaced 1360cc – that was all the two had in common, as this new entry-level power unit proved more than muscular enough to pull the relatively large body along with a certain elan.

However, it was at the top of the range where things got more interesting. New engines added to the line-up included a 125bhp 1905cc petrol engine, to create the GTI model (below), and a turbodiesel with 90bhp and a near-10 second 0-60mph time. Back then, this mattered a lot, especially when diesel was only just beginning to gain acceptance in the company car pool. Before you could say, ‘Andre Citroën’, and ably assisted by the clever updates, the BX was shooting up the sales charts – often finding itself in the position of the UK’s best-selling diesel model. Amazing!

Sports models add even more appeal

The GTI was an interesting and unconventional addition to the hot hatch market. For one, it had five doors and shared a splendid and level ride with its more humble brethren. Who needs stiff suspension and church pew-like seats in the name of sporting prowess? On UK roads especially… Not Citroën, that’s for sure. A hoop rear spoiler, pronounced front air dam, and a 0-60mph time of around 8.5 seconds gave a BX GTI’s lucky owners all the pub bragging rights they needed.

The following year, the GTI 16V (later renamed the BX 16 Valve) was added to the range. This was even quicker – with 160bhp from its all aluminium XU9J4 engine shared with the Peugeot 405 Mi16, and a rev cutout well beyond 7000rpm, this was an unlikely flying machine.

Despite being well equipped with a relatively luxurious interior, it was light (1070kg), which meant a 0-60mph time of around 7.5 seconds and a maximum speed of 135mph. In many ways it was more flawed than the standard 8V GTI, but that didn’t stop Citroën UK selling bucketloads of the things… call it great marketing, a competitive price and Gandini style (improved with a new bodykit in 1989) that was really beginning to grow into its own skin.

Topping off the performance line-up came the BX GTI 4×4 in 1989. Four-wheel drive was de rigeur in the 1980s following the success of Audi’s Quattro models, and Citroën joined the fun with what could have been a brilliant addition to the range. However, it didn’t sell as well as it hoped and would prove to be troublesome for owners as the years went on. Still, it was a good idea.

And on to a gentle close

Despite having styling rooted in the 1970s, the BX defied the odds and continued to sell well in the UK well into the 1990s. That’s down to great marketing, a brilliant model range and competitive pricing at a time when cars were rapidly getting costlier and more complex.

Diesel models, in particular, carried the range with the sporty-looking (UK-specific) TZD Turbo model combining GTI looks and the 50+mpg of the 1769cc forced induction XUD engine. Lively performance and snazzy looks inside and out were enough to create a substantial sales hit that would help maintain the BX’s status as popular street furniture well into the 2000s.

For a long time after its replacement by the brilliant Xantia (we’ll return to that one soon, I am sure), the BX remained in the doldrums. For too long, it was seen as cheap wheels, bought by those who didn’t worry too much about servicing it properly, and relying on its surprising resilience and ruggedness (never mistake lightweight build for poor quality). Rust ended up eating many of them from the inside out – with the external signs appearing far too late for an economical repair, leaving only the best examples with us today.

I’ve had my share of them (click on My Life in Cars to see the horrible truth) – and quietly harbour the desire to own another. I’ve many a happy memory of my time in them, and it’s a pleasure to indulge my inner Francophile by celebrating the car’s 40th anniversary. Not that I mind being reminded just how old I am these days!

The good news is that they’ve now found their feet as classic cars, with rarity and rising values fuelling further interest. Long gone are the days when bearded Citroënistes bemoaned the BX for not being the ‘real thing’ as they patted the bonnets of their 2CVs. Now the BX has a rapidly growing following, with an increasing number of crisp and mint restored examples flying the flag for future generations to enjoy!

C’est magnifique!

Keith Adams
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  1. My dad and grandad always liked the BX but never took the plunge because of their reputation of being a bit fragile compared to the market. One thing you didn’t mention Keith that it was the Caravan Club’s tow car of the year three times during the 80s, which was unheard of as the normally promoted rear wheel drive. Many of those diesel sales ended up by tow cars!

  2. I wanted to like them but never took the plunge in owning one. Partly because of the Citroen reputation for being awkward, but also because I always thought the bodywork looked a bit plasticky and thin, not very substantial.

  3. Thanks for making me feel very old Keith. On my paper round in Sandhurst, Berkshire there was a guy who worked for Citroen UK. He had two SM’s on his drive, one a spares car the other immaculate. A red car was parked on his drive one morning in 1982 with all designations were taped over so you couldn’t tell what it was or who made it. At 7AM no one can see you peel the tape off so I saw it was a BX, prior to being released to the public.
    Was that really 40 years ago?

  4. Id owned a Dyane then a succession of 2CVs so considered myself somewhat of a Citroenist. Decided that I needed an “actual” car as well so got myself a TGD Turbo Diesel which I soon realised was the best car in the world ever. Fast quiet comfortable and economic compared to contemporary Maestros, Escorts, Golfs etc that I’d driven through friends and hire companies. It even seemed to sip no more fuel than its 602cc brethren. Replaced that with a green 8v GTI. Even more the best car in the world ever, it had alloy wheels and air-con! A Xantia came next which is another story…
    I will own one again.
    Especially if I can find a 1.9 Digit, with the Maestro trouncing digital dash…

  5. 40 years – how time flies. I’ve mentioned before, one of my colleagues had an Alfetta company car and this was replaced with a BX Leader. He was a photographer so the BX was a practical car and a bit different to the opposition hatchbacks of the day.

  6. I was tempted by a GTI 16V once, but my mate’s diesel had to have all the suspension piping replaced – an engine out job which IIRC cost him £1200 in about 1990! That out me off a bit… that early dash does look very much like bits would come off in your hand..

    • I used to do BX re-pipes for about £650. That was in 1998 using genuine pipes. I owned my own Citroen repair workshop until 2001. I came out of retirement recently and have my own workshop.
      I have worked at three Citroen main dealers. I owe a lot to the BX!

  7. Another thumbs-up from me for the BX! In the early 1990’s my employer maintained about six of them – various diesel and petrol ones – as “pool cars” (not in the Keith Moon sense… although we were based in Kendal, so our cars suffered with plenty of rainwater!). These were all the “facelift” versions and I loved driving them.

    I very nearly bought one around 1994 but, as Keith mentions, the old tinworm was a notable problem – even on models that were less than three years old (the Lake District climate perhaps catalysed the issue).

    Now the “hates garages” proclamation isn’t wholly true… and some mechanics hated the BX as supposedly routine jobs could be quite awkward. I remember that when we had a slight exhaust blow on a downpipe section, when I took it to our company’s resident mechanic, he exclaimed “Oh, no – another f*****g engine-out job!!”. Whether that was true or not, I didn’t hang around to find out!

    Other than that, great to drive and generally reliable.

    • “Engine out” to repair an exhaust blow, but a clutch change, usually quite involved on many cars, I think Citroen BX had a body panel to be unbolted and removed which gave very good access for the clutch repair, I could be wrong, more than 35 years since my B-in-L owned a BX

      • The 1.4 BX with the early suitcase X engine was an easy ninety minute job. Very easy as there’s clearance to remove the case which covers the clutch. Once I’d done a few, it took me just over one hour.
        All XU Series cars took about three hours. The later 1.4 TU ones can be done in two hours max.
        The BX wasn’t especially reliable. I remember in 1988 having six XUD diesel engines in bits waiting for parts…
        The BX was exceptionally good on resistance to body corrosion. Especially the series two.
        I have owned at least thirty of them.
        Around 2006 you could buy endless mint BXs for £50 upwards, depending on the fault.
        For some reason, I am thinking of buying another…

  8. Bx16RS estate sometime in the early 90’s. Fabulous, stylish, clever, ergonomically excellent, practical, lively, utterly reliable, great tow car, smooth – well, you get my drift!

  9. Funnily enough saw a clean-looking BX diesel estate in our local high street while out and about today…
    Not driven one myself – but did make a few biz trips in a Rover 218 SD back in the day, would have been on an M or N-plate. That had the Peugeot-Citroen XUD Diesel engine in non-turbo 1.8 form. First car on which I saw over 50mpg.

  10. I have fond memories of the BX from a sales job in 1994 and often wish I’d been able to afford one, as it was such a comfortable, economical and relaxing car to drive and be a passenger in. The diesels were light years ahead of the sluggish and none too refined Fiesta diesel I learned to drive in and could glide along the M74 at 70-80 mph effortlessly.

    • The BX diesel estate I had was a great car. Biggest problem was when I picked up some used scaffolding fittings and loaded them into the back. Suspension self levelled so no sign of the weight in the back, but with almost no weight on the front wheels the handling was scary! Generally a very reliable car, and I used to love watching ‘lift off’ as the air suspension filled and the car majestically rose to working height.

  11. My dad had in 1990 BX TZD Turbo Diessel ,he bouth him at car fary in Belgrade,new..it was metalic greey,it had abs,air conditioner,electric windows,central lock dors,with remote control,bord computer,electric mirors,hidraulic suspension with 4 levels,it had almosst every thing what now days car have,it was fuckin good car,it was fast as hell,michelin tierys,…best car ever had …happy birthday to BX❤️

  12. The BX and the small sibling the lightweight AX Supermini may mark be the final fling of Citroen to be a mainstream/volume car product for the UK. The BX succeeded for a few years judging by the sales figures, the AX sold in reasonable numbers but always seemed to be on offer at heavily discounted prices. The current DS range is a niche product and not doing very well, initial sales impetus lost, will PSA withdraw the DS range from the UK due to low acceptance by the UK?

    • @ cyclist, the XM and Xantia were the last of the old school Citroens, with hydropneumatic suspension and the Citroen look. Thereafter the cars have really just been Peugeots, with slightly qurky styling and digital dashboards, and have lost their mojo. DS is supposed to be the upmarket brand, but offers little over Citroen, and isn’t doing much.

    • Hired a AX for a day back in 1989. Unexpectedly loved the driving experience, a hoot, but hated the flimsy, low rent interior. The door mirror joystick came off in my hand! Not really surprised that big discounts were required to shift ’em.

  13. My dad had a 1991 4×4 estate bought from the local main dealer almost new, possibly the most unreliable car ever had mainly down to the hydraulics although i do remember the gear linkage falling apart while changing down for a corner and him walking home, when the clutch decided it had been a clutch for to long it was traded in at the rover dealer for a montego estate,

  14. I subscribe to Carsyouhaveneverseenbefore channel on Pinterest, where weird and wonderful photoshop could have beens are shown. Appearing yesterday was a shrunken BX, which makes you wonder if Citroën could have dropped this body onto the GS and given itself a 80s midliner? I have already seen on Citroënet that there had been plans to update the GS with a dubious makeover


  15. I never considered it an in between car like a Marina or Maestro, it was a Sierra/Cavalier competitor pure and simple. Sure it was launched with engines capped at 1.6 litres – but so did the Mk2 Cavalier. This was an era when most manufacturers started to squeeze more bangs for the buck from smaller capacity engines such as the XU or GM Family 1/2 – The exception of course being Ford who continued with the asthmatic Pinto

    • Agreed, and in the UK the tax system at the time penalised engines over 1799cc anyway, so the 2 litre engine wasn’t popular for a while

  16. The BX came good with the 1986 refresh, new engines and more aggressive promotion. From being an also ran that appealed mostly to Citroenistes trading in their GSAs, the BX soon became contender to the Sierra and Cavalier and the car probably helped diesel take off in the family car sector as the engines were vastly more refined and more powerful than the crude, asthmatic engines used by Ford and Vauxhall. In turbodiesel form, the BX must have won over hundreds of fleet managers as it performed like a 2 litre petrol car, but offered 50-60 mpg.

    • The Diesel engine, and the self levelling suspension saw the BX become a multiple winner of the Tow Car of the Year. I think that really helped its profile in the UK.

      • I remember them being popular with sections of “Middle England” by the mid to late 1980s, certainly people who wanted a car a bit different & more specific to their needs.

        Probably the same sort of people who bought Renault 16s in the 1970s & weren’t so keen on Renault’s offerings in the 1980s.

      • Winning towcar of the year certainly helped with sales. Around 50% of the diesels had a towbar and additional cooling fan.
        I remember finishing many engine jobs and the owner driving to the south of France the next day.
        I was sure that something bad was going to happen. It never did. Even with a huge caravan in tow…
        A lot of BX owners towed far too heavy caravans too.
        I recall replacing a front bumper on one, whilst the customer waited. A ten minute job.
        He complained as we couldn’t possibly have fit it properly.
        I explained that thirty seconds when the car was new would have been considered far too long.

  17. @ Richarpd, Renault in the eighties produced some really uninspiring cars like the 9 and developed a reputation for poor reliability with the 21. The Citroen BX. after the eccentric dashboard was replaced in 1986 and a better range of engines was introduced, became a serious contender and was a far more individual and better car than a Sierra. Certainly many fleet managers and company car drivers were won over by the excellent economy on diesel models and the car’s comfort on long journeya. Also so long as the BX was maintained correctly, it was a reliable car.

    • Peugeot also managed to grow in popularity during the 1980s, the 405 became common to see as a company car & minicab by the end of the decade, thanks to the XUD diesels & being a more conventional design than the BX.

      • The 405 joined the Nissan Bluebird on the list of British family cars that would appeal to the company car market, which still mostly bought British badged cars in 1988. It was more conventional and easier to maintain than a Citroen BX, but was still an excellent driver’s car, was better looking than the Sierra and the diesel engines could easily handle 20,000 miles a year.

  18. In spring 88 I drove a Peugeot 405 1.6GL hire car from Glasgow to Tyneside and found it a good performer. It was also a good-looking saloon in its day. Later on I drove the Estate version which was a useful and decent looking load carrier. I’m finding now that I prefer cars of the 80s & 90s more so than the current designs.

  19. I was driving from Hamilton to Carlisle yesterday, and encountered some of the really dismal weather the M74 can suddenly impose on drivers over Beattock Summit. Yesterday, it was torrential rain for 20 miles and terrible visibility due to the rain and spray from lorries, and for all my Skoda Fabia coped well, I can remember a similar journey from East Kilbride in 1994 with sleet, heavy rain ans strong winds over Beattock in a Citroen BX. The Citroen managed to make dtiving in such awful conditions stress free due to its powerful headlights, hydropneumatic suspension that soaked up the poor surface on the old A74, and the comfortable seats and decent sound system isolated you from the weather.

  20. Using fibreglass for some of the panels helped keep the rust at bay, & rustproofing in general seemed to improve a lot in the 1980s.

    • By the nineties, the use of galvanised panels, plastics and better steel meant rust had been largely beaten on newer cars. Even cars that were once terrible for rust issues like Alfa Romeos were far better protected against rust and it stopped being an issue when buying a car. The only time rust would become an issue was if a car had been in an accident and had been badly repaired or if wheel arches hadn’t been properly protected( an issue on Mark 3 Golfs and Rover Montegos after a couple of years).

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